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Question: List and describe network management architectures.
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Subject: Telecom Network Management

Topic: OSI Network Management

Difficulty: Medium

tnm(38) • 1.1k views
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modified 7 days ago by gravatar for Sanket Shingote Sanket Shingote ♦♦ 210 written 11 months ago by gravatar for Tabassum Tabassum20
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TMN architecture: There are three architectural perspectives: functional, physical, and information, as shown in Figure1.

• The functional architecture identifies functional modules or blocks in the TMN environment, including the reference point between them. The requirements for interface are specified.

• The physical architecture defines the physical blocks and interfaces between them.

• Information architecture deals with the information exchange between managed objects and management systems, using a distributed object-oriented approach.

TNM Architcture

Functional Architecture:

i. TMN architecture made up of five function blocks: operations systems function, network element function (NEF), mediation function (MF), workstation function (WSF), and Q-adapter function (QAF), as shown in Figure2.

ii. The TMN operations systems function (OSF) is implemented in operations systems. Operations systems (OS) such as network transmission OS and traffic measurement OS help monitor, manage, and control telecommunication networks and services.

iii. Network management, both as a manager and an agent, is also considered to be an OS. This would include MIB in Internet management and naming tree in OSI management as a function of the OSF.

Functional Architcture

iv. The TMN NEF is concerned with the managed network elements. Network elements themselves are not part of TMN, but are supported by TMN over the standard interfaces. Network elements would include hardware, software, and systems such as hubs, routers, switches, processes, etc.

v. The network management agent and the associated MIB are part of the NEF. Network elements providing information for management, such as packets dropped, collision rate, etc., are considered as part of TMN, i.e. NEF.

vi. The TMN MF block addresses the operations performed on the information content passing between the network elements and operations systems. Such operations include filtering, store and forward, protocol conversion, threshold detection, etc.

vii. A physical entity in which the MF is implemented can be shared between multiple operations systems and network elements. The TMN WSF provides an interface between human personnel and TMN activities. More specifically, this function addresses the presentation aspect. The conversion function that converts machine-readable information to human-interpretable format in the presentation function belongs in one of the other three function blocks, OSF, MF, and QAF.

Physical Architecture:

i. Model for the TMN physical architecture, shown in Figure3. A TMN physical block could be an embodiment of one or more blocks, besides its equivalent function block. For example, an operations system could have its operation function as well as mediation device, which does filtering of information.

ii. There are five types of physical blocks representing the five functions discussed. Operations systems are embodiments of TMN OSF. It is connected to the mediation device, placing the MF on a data communication network.

iii. The data communication network is the physical implementation of DCF, which to repeat, is not a function block, but a TMN function, DCF. The network elements, Q adapter, and workstations reflect their respective TMN functions

iv. The Q, F, and X TMN interfaces between the physical devices are also shown in Figure3, representing the physical implementation of the respective TMN reference points. The Q3 interface is used between the OS and either an NE or a QA.

v. The Qx interface is shown between MD and QA/NE. An example of this would be an MD being a proxy server communicating with legacy systems via the QA interface. The F interface is implemented to connect a workstation to TMN. The X interface is between the operations systems belonging to two different TMNs.

Physical Architcture

Information Architecture:

i. Figure4 shows the information exchange between the two types of entities.

ii. The manager performs operations or makes requests from an agent. The agent executes the operations on the network elements that it is managing and sends responses to the manager. The agent also sends unsolicited messages to the manager indicating alarm events.

iii. Information models specified by SNMP and OSI management deal with the management of network elements. The TMN information model has been used in specific technology such as ATM and SDH/ SONET.

iv. The information architecture should transport information reliably across the functional boundaries. There are two types of communication services between interfaces: interactive and file oriented. Interactive service is supported in OSI by CMISE over Remote Operations Service Element (ROSE).

v. In the Internet distributed computing environment (DCE), this will be handled by Remote Procedure Call (RPC). The file-oriented category is supported by File Transfer Access Management (FTAM) in OSI and in the Internet by File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

vi. In the OSI model, Association Control Services Element (ACSE) is needed to establish, release, and abort application associations. In the Internet model, this is integrated in RPC presentation service.

Information Architecture

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modified 11 months ago  • written 11 months ago by gravatar for Tabassum Tabassum20
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