Advanced Surveying - May 2014
Civil Engineering (Semester 4)
TOTAL TIME: HOURS
1 (a) Explain the term "Tacheometry". What are the applications of tacheometric survey? Mention the instruments used in tacheometric survey(4 marks)
1 (b) Discuss the Stadia system of tacheometric measurements.(4 marks)
1 (c) A tacheometer was set up at station A and the following readings were obtained on a vertically held staff.
|Instrument Station||Staff Station||Vertical Station||Staff Readings||Remark|
|A||BM||-4° 22'||1.050, 1.105, 1.155||Rl of BM is|
|A||B||+10° 0'||0.955, 1.035, 1.160||1958.30 m|
The constants of instruments were 100.0 and 0.10. Find the distance of BM from A and distance AB, and also find out RL of B.(6 marks) 2 (a) Distance between two proposed stations A and B in a triangulation is 100 km. 07 Elevation of station A is 200m while that of B is 500 m. There is two peaks C & D between A and B at a distance 40 and 70 km from A and is having an elevation of 160 and 265 m respectively. Ascertain whether A and B are intervisible. If not intervisible find the minimum height of tower is required at B, so that B is visible from A with a minimum clearance of 2.5 m above the surface of the ground.(7 marks) 2 (b) (1) Discuss uses of Triangulation survey(3 marks) 2 (b) (2) Give criteria for selection of triangulation figures.(4 marks) 2 (c) Differentiate between, Grid Iron and Central system of Primary triangulation.(7 marks) 3 (a) Discuss the types of errors.(4 marks) 3 (b) Define the terms; i) Independent Quantity, ii) Conditioned Quantity, iii) True Value of a Quantity, iv) Direct observations, v) Indirect observations, vi) Weight of an observation and vii) Most Probable Value.(6 marks) 3 (c) The following 10 readings were taken with a level under the identical conditions.
1.810, 1.825, 1.835, 1.805, 1.850, 1.825, 1.820, 1.840, 1.845 & 1.835 meters.
Calculate the probable error of single observation, probable error of the mean and the maximum error.(4 marks) 3 (d) Briefly explain: How measurement with EDM instruments differs from taping? What are the advantages of EDM measurement?(4 marks) 3 (e) List different types of EDM instruments and briefly write about each one of Them.(4 marks) 3 (f) Briefly Discuss these four basic types of total stations, i) Mechanical/Manual TS, ii) Motorized TS, iii) Auto lock TS and iv) Robotic/Automatic TS.(6 marks) 4 (a) Define the terms: i) Vertical photograph, ii) Tilted photograph and iii) Oblique photograph.(3 marks) 4 (b) Discuss in detail, Flight planning for aerial photogrammetry.(6 marks) 4 (c) To determine the average scale of an aerial photograph, three points A, B and C were selected. Their elevations were obtained from a contoured map as 1400m, 900m, and 1100m. If the flying height of the aircraft above mean sea level is 3500 m and the focal length of the camera lens is 160 mm, calculate the average scale of the aerial photograph.(5 marks) 4 (d) Two points A and B which appear in a vertical photograph taken from a camera having focal length of 220 mm and from an altitude of 2800 m, have their elevations as 400 m and 600 m, respectively. Their corrected photo coordinates are as under:
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|x (mm)||y (mm)|
Determine the length of the ground line AB.(6 marks) 4 (e) Discuss: How Terrestrial Latitudes and Longitudes are determined.(4 marks) 4 (f) Write short note on, Spherical triangle and Spherical excess.(4 marks) 5 (a) Define Remote sensing and discuss types of remote sensing.(3 marks) 5 (b) Discuss, Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with earth surface.(4 marks) 5 (c) Discuss; spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions of remote sensing. Briefly discus various operations involved in digital image processing for remote sensing.(7 marks) 5 (d) Discuss various receiver types used for GPS positioning.(4 marks) 5 (e) Define GIS and give its key components.(4 marks) 5 (f) Discuss integration of remote sensing and GIS and explain use of RS & GIS data in preparation of Land use/ Land cover map.(6 marks)