## Moderator: Swati Sharma

Swati Sharma ♦♦

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#### Academic profile

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... **RSA algorithm**
- RSA alogorithm is the most popular asymmetric key cryptographic algorithm
- It is based on the mathematical fact that it is easy to find and multiply large prime numbers together but it is extremely difficult to factor their productor
- The private and public keys in RSA are b ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **Public key cryptography (Asymmetric)**
- Symmetric key cryptography is fast and efficient but it suffers from a disadvantage of problem of key exchange
- The sender and the receiver of an encrypted message use the same key in symmetric key cryptography and it is not easy to again upon a common k ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **RC-5 Algorithm**
- In RC-5, the word size (i.e. input plaintext block size), number of rounds and number of keys are not fixed i.e. all can be of variable length.
- Once w, r, k (word size, number of rounds, number of keys) are finalized then they remain same for all the rounds.
- Plain text ca ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **Blowfish Algorithm**
- Blowfish was developed by Bruce Schneier. It is very strong symmetric key cryptographic algorithm.
**Features of Blowfish:**
- Fast: Blowfish encryption state on 32 bit microprocessors is 26 clock cycles per byte
- Compact: Blowfish can execute is less than 5KB memory
...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **AES ( Advanced Encryption Standard)**
- The need for coming up with AES algorithm was because of the weakness in DES. The 56 bit key of DES were no longer considered safe against attacks based on exhaustive key section and the 64 bit blocks were also considered weak.
- AES is based on 128 lit bl ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

**0**• updated 4 months ago by Yashbeer ♦♦**130**0

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... **4. Output Feedback (OFB) mode:**
- It involves feeding the successive output blocks from the underlying block cipher back to it. These feedback blocks provide string of bits to feed the encryption algorithm which act as the key-stream generates as in case of OFB mode.
- The key-stream generated i ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **3. Cipher feedback (CFB) Mode**: In this mode each ciphertext block gets fed back into the encryption process in order to encrypt the next plaintext block.
Operation:
- The operation of CFB mode is depicted in the following illustration. For example, in the present system a message block has a s ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **2. Cipher block Chaining Mode (CBC Mode)**: provides message dependency for generating ciphertext & makes the system non-determiniastic.
Operations:
- Load the ‘n’ bit initialization vector (IV) in the top register.
- XOR the ‘n’ bit plaintext block with data value in top register.
- Encrypt ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **$\underline{\text{Block Cipher Modes of Operation}}$**
These are operational rule for generic block cipher that each result in different properties being achieved when they are applied to plaintext consisting of more than one block.
**1. Electronics Code Book**: Most straight forward way of proc ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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... **Data Encryption Standard**
- DES is a symmetric key block cipher published by NIST (National institute of Standards & Technologies)
- DES is an implementation of a Fiestal cipher.
- It has a 64-bit block size, a 64-bit key length & uses 16 rounds.
- DES has an effective key length of 56 b ...

written 4 months ago by
Swati Sharma ♦♦

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