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Which protocol is responsible to report error messages? Explain in brief.
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ICMP is responsible for report error messages I) Error Reporting: • One of the main responsibilities of ICMP is to report errors. Although technology has produced increasingly reliable transmission media, errors still exist and must be handled. • IP is an unreliable protocol. This means that error checking and error control are not a concern of IP. • ICMP was designed, in part, to compensate for this shortcoming. However, ICMP does not correct errors-it simply reports them. Error correction is left to the higher-level protocols. • Error messages are always sent to the original source because the only information available in the datagram about the route is the source and destination IP addresses. • ICMP uses the source IP address to send the error message to the source (originator) of the datagram. • Five types of errors are handled: destination unreachable, source quench, time exceeded, parameter problems, and redirection (see figure1).

• Destination Unreachable: When a router cannot route a datagram or a host cannot deliver a datagram, the datagram is discarded and the router or the host sends a destination-unreachable message back to the source host that initiated the datagram. • Source Quench: The source-quench message in ICMP was designed to add a kind of flow control to the IP. When a router or host discards a datagram due to congestion, it sends a source-quench message to the sender of the datagram. This message has two purposes. First, it informs the source that the datagram has been discarded. Second, it warns the source that there is congestion somewhere in the path and that the source should slow down (quench) the sending process. • Time Exceeded: When the time-to-live value reaches 0, after decrementing, the router discards the datagram. However, when the datagram is discarded, a time-exceeded message must be sent by the router to the original source. Second, a time-exceeded message is also generated when not all fragments that make up a message arrive at the destination host within a certain time limit. • Parameter Problem: Any ambiguity in the header part of a datagram can create serious problems as the datagram travels through the Internet. If a router or the destination host discovers an ambiguous or missing value in any field of the datagram, it discards the datagram and sends a parameter-problem message back to the source. • Redirection: This concept of redirection is shown in Figure 2. Host A wants to send a datagram to host B. Router R2 is obviously the most efficient routing choice, but host A did not choose router R2. The datagram goes to R1 instead. Router R1, after consulting its table, finds that the packet should have gone to R2. It sends the packet to R2 and, at the same time, sends a redirection message to host A. Host A's routing table can now be updated.

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