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**1. Consolidation of soils**

1.1 Compressibility & settlement, comparison between compaction & consolidation, concept of excess pore water pressure, initial, primary secondary consolidation, spring analogy for primary consolidation, consolidation test results, coefficient of compressibility, coefficient of volume change, compression, expansion recompression indices, normally over consolidated soils.

1.2 Terzhaghi‘s theory of consolidation- assumptions, coefficient of vertical consolidation, distribution of hydrostatic excess pore water pressure with depth & time, time factor, relationship between time factor degree of

consolidation, determination of coefficient of vertical consolidation, pre- consolidation pressure.

1.3 Final settlements of a soil deposit in the field, time settlement curve, field consolidation curve.

**2. Shear strength**

2.1 Introduction, three dimensional state of stress in soil mass, principal stresses in soil, shear failure in soils- frictional cohesive strength, general shear stress-strain curves in soil definition of failure, graphical method of determination of stresses on a plane inclined to the principal planes through Mohr’s circle, important characteristics of Mohr‘s circle.

2.2 Mohr-Coulomb theory- shear strength parameters; Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion- relation between major minor principle stresses, total & effective stress analysis.

2.3 Different types of shear tests drainage conditions; Direct shear test, Triaxial compression test (UU, CU CD), Unconfined compression test, Vane shear test; comparison between direct & triaxial tests, interpretation of test results of direct shear & triaxial shear tests stress-strain curves Mohr failure envelopes

2.4 Determination of shear strength of soil with geosynthetics- pull out test: ASTM procedure for finding shear strength of soil-geosynthetic system.

**3. Stability of Slopes**

3.1 Introduction: Types of slopes, types of slope failures, factors of safety

3.2 Stability analysis of infinite slopes in i) cohesionless soil and ii) cohesive soil under a) dry condition, b) submerged condition and c) steady seepage along the slope

3.3 Stability analysis of finite slopes: i) Culmann’s method, ii) Swedish slip circle method, iii) friction circle method and iv) Taylor’s stability number

**4. Lateral Earth Pressure Theories and Stability of Retaining Walls**

4.1 Introduction to Lateral Earth Pressure Theories: Concept of lateral earth pressure based on vertical and horizontal stresses, different types of lateral earth pressure

4.2 Rankine’s earth pressure theory: i) assumptions, ii) active and passive states in cohesionless soil: effect of submergence, effect of uniform surcharge, effect of inclined surcharge iii) active and passive states in cohesive soil

4.3 Coulomb’s wedge theory: i) assumptions, ii) active and passive states in cohesionless soil, iii) active and passive states in cohesive soil

4.4 Rehbann’s Graphical Method (no proof)

4.5 Culmann’s Graphical Method (no proof)

4.6 Introduction to retaining walls: types of retaining walls, stability checks for retaining walls

4.7 Stability analysis of gravity retaining walls

4.8 Stability analysis of cantilever retaining walls

**5. Shallow Foundations**

5.1 Introduction: types of shallow foundations, definitions of different bearing capacities

5.2 Theoretical methods of determining bearing capacity of shallow foundations:

i) Terzaghi’s theory: assumptions, zones of failure, modes of failure, ultimate bearing capacity equations for general and local shear failure, factors influencing bearing capacity: shape of footing and water table, limitations of Terzaghi’s theory

ii) Vesic’s theory: bearing capacity equation

iii) I.S. Code Method: bearing capacity equation

5.3 Field methods of determining bearing capacity of shallow foundations: i) standard penetration test and ii) plate load test

**6. Pile Foundations**

6.1 Introduction to pile foundations: types of pile foundations, necessity of pile foundations

6.2 Theoretical methods of determining load carrying capacity of pile foundations: i) static formulae and ii) dynamic formulae

6.3 Field method of determining load capacity of pile foundations: pile load test

6.4 Group action of piles, settlement of pile groups, negative skin friction