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Applied Chemistry 2

Students studying First Year Engineering will find this subject very useful. Hundreds of important topics on Applied Chemistry 2 are organized neatly into lessons below.

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As per Choice Based Grading System


Module 1. Corrosion

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Types of Corrosion:

(I) Dry or Chemical Corrosion

  • Due to oxygen
  • Due to other gases

(II) Wet or Electrochemical corrosion

  • Mechanism
  • Evolution of hydrogen type
  • Absorption ...
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As per Choice Based Grading System


Module 1. Corrosion

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Types of Corrosion:

(I) Dry or Chemical Corrosion

  • Due to oxygen
  • Due to other gases

(II) Wet or Electrochemical corrosion

  • Mechanism
  • Evolution of hydrogen type
  • Absorption of oxygen

1.3 Types of Electrochemical Corrosion

  • Galvanic cell corrosion
  • Concentration cell corrosion (differential aeration)
  • Pitting corrosion
  • Intergranular corrosion
  • Stress corrosion

1.4 Factors affecting the rate of corrosion:

  • Nature of metal
  • position of metal in galvanic series
  • potential difference
  • overvoltage
  • relative area of anodic and cathodic parts
  • purity of metal
  • nature of the corrosion product
  • temperature
  • moisture
  • influence of pH
  • concentration of the electrolytes

1.5 Methods to decrease the rate of corrosion:

  • Material selection
  • Proper designing
  • Use of inhibitors
  • Cathodic protection- i) Sacrificial anodic protection ii) Impressed current method
  • Anodic protection method
  • Metallic coatings - hot dipping- galvanizing and tinning, metal cladding, metal spraying, Electroplating, Cementation
  • Organic coatings - Paints (only constituents and their functions)

Module 2. Alloys

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Purpose of making alloys

2.3 Ferrous alloys - plain carbon steel, heat resisting steels, stainless steels (corrosion resistant steels)

2.4 Effect of the alloying element- Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, Mo,W and V

2.5 Non-Ferrous alloys

  • 2.5.1 Composition

  • 2.5.2 Properties and uses of -

    • (I) Alloys of Aluminium: Duralumin, Magnalium

    • (II) Alloys of Cu: i) Brasses - Commercial brass - German silver ii) Bronzes - Gun metal - High phosphorous bronze

    • (III) Alloys of Pb: Wood’s metal, Tinmann’s solder

2.6 Powder Metallurgy

  • 2.6.1 Introduction

  • 2.6.2 Methods of powder metal formation - i) Mechanical pulverization ii) Atomization iii) Chemical reduction iv) Electrolytic process v) Decomposition

  • 2.6.3 Mixing and blending

  • 2.6.4 Sintering

  • 2.6.5 Compacting - i) Cold pressing ii) Powder injection moulding (iii) Hot compaction

  • 2.6.6 Applications of powder metallurgy

2.7 Shape Memory Alloys - Definition, properties and Uses

Module 3. Fuels

3.1 Definition

3.2 Classification of fuels - solid, liquid and gaseous

3.3 Calorific value- Definition, Gross or Higher calorific value & Net or lower calorific value, units of heat (no conversions), Dulong’s formula & numerical for calculations of Gross and Net calorific values

3.4 Characteristics of a good fuel

3.5 Solid fuels - Analysis of coal- Proximate and Ultimate Analysis with significance and numericals

3.6 Liquid fuels- Crude petroleum oil, its composition and classification and mining (in brief)

3.7 Refining of crude oil - i) Separation of water ii) Separation of ‘S’ & iii) Fractional Distillation with diagram and composition and uses table

3.8 Cracking

  • 3.8.1 Definition

  • 3.8.2 Types of cracking:

    • I) Thermal cracking - (i) Liquid phase thermal cracking (ii) Vapour phase thermal cracking.
    • II) Catalytic cracking - (i) Fixed-bed catalytic cracking (ii) Moving-bed catalytic cracking
  • 3.8.3 Advantages of Catalytic cracking

3.9 Petrol - Refining of petrol, unleaded petrol (use of MTBE), Catalytic converter, Power alcohol, Knocking, Octane number, Cetane number, Antiknocking agents.

3.10 Combustion - Calculations for requirement of only oxygen and air (by weight and by volume only) for given solid & gaseous fuels

3.11 Biodiesel - Method to obtain Biodiesel from vegetable oils (Trans-esterification), advantage and disadvantages of biodiesel.

3.12 Fuel cell- Definition, types and applications

Module 4. Composite Material

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Constitution - i) Matrix phase ii) Dispersed phase

4.3 Characteristic properties of composite materials

4.4 Classification

  • (A) Particle reinforced composites
    • i) Large particle reinforced composites
    • ii) Dispersion strengthened composites.
  • (B) Fiber reinforced composites
    • i) Continuous aligned
    • ii) Discontinuous aligned (short) - (a) aligned (b) randomly oriented
  • (C) Structural Composites
    • i) Laminates
    • (ii) Sandwich Panels

Module 6. Green Chemistry

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Twelve Principles of Green chemistry

6.3 Numerical on atom economy

6.4 Conventional and green synthesis of Adipic acid, Indigo, Ibuprofen and Carbaryl

6.5 Green solvents (water, supercritical $CO_2$) and products from natural materials

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