Explain sanitation of streams. State effects of industrial waste on river and fish.

Mumbai university > Civil > SEM 8 > Industrial Waste Treatment

Marks: 10M

Year: May 2015,

1 Answer

With respect to defining sanitation most professionals would agree that sanitation as a whole includes:

  • Safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal/re-use/recycling of human excreta.

  • Management/re-use/recycling of solid wastes.

  • Drainage and disposal/ re-use/ recycling of household waste water

  • Drainage of storm water.

  • Treatment and disposal/re-use/recycling of sewage effluents

  • Collection and management of industrial waste products

  • Management of hazardous wastes

The effects of industrial waste on river and fish are as follows:-

Suspended solids:-

  • They settle to the bottom or wash up on the banks and decompose causing odour& depleting the oxygen in the river water.

  • Fish often die because of a sudden lowering of oxygen content of a stream

  • Solids that settle to the bottom will cover their spawning grounds & inhibit propagation.

  • Visible sludge creates unsightly condition & destroys the use of river for recreational purpose.

  • This solid also increases the turbidity of the water courses.

Acid & alkalis:-

  • Extra acidity & alkalinity destroys aquatic life.

  • It causes the foaming of water at the surface. Therefore stream water cannot be used without treatment.

Colour producing materials:-

  • Colour is contributed by textile and paper-mills, tanneries, slaughter house and other industries is an indicator of pollution.

  • Compounds present in water absorb certain wavelength of light and reflect the remainder.

  • Colour interferes with the transmission of sunlight into the stream and therefore decreases photosynthetic action.

  • It may also interfere with oxygen absorption from the atmosphere although no positive proof of this exists.

  • Visible pollution often causes more troubles for industry than invisible pollution.

Inorganic salts:-

  • The inorganic salts which are present in most industrial waste as well as in nature itself cause water to be hard & make a stream undesirable for industrial, municipal and agricultural usage.

  • Salt laden waste deposits scale on municipal water distribution pipeline, increasing resistance to flow and lowering the overall capacity of the lines.

Heavy metals & toxic waste:-

Sulphide, cyanide, arsenic, lead, mercury has a great effect on the flora & fauna of the streams. It reduces the portability of water.

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