Question: Draw the neat sketch of layout of artificial harbor.

Mumbai University > Civil Engineering > Sem 6 > Transportation Engineering 2

Topic : Water Transport

Difficulty : High

mumbai university te2(76) • 4.7k views
modified 27 days ago by gravatar for abhishektiwari1712 abhishektiwari1712 ♦♦ 30 written 2.1 years ago by gravatar for Juilee Juilee2.1k

Components of artificial harbor:-

  1. Approach channel
  2. Entrance channel
  3. Berthing basin
  4. Turning basin
  5. Quays and wharves
  6. Breakwaters
  7. Dry docks and slipways
  8. Jetties & piers
  9. Lock and locked basin
  10. Other components like sheds, buoys, godown, fire protection towers, lights, anchors, warehouses, moorings etc. are also included in the layout of harbor

Approach channel:-

  • Depth of water in the entire harbor area should be adequate or sufficient for the purpose of navigation of design vessel or ship. When the depth of water is the net sufficient, then a channel with sufficient depth & width should be made by dredging which further provide a passage of ship between the harbor entrance & the docks
  • There are two types of approach channel namely (i) Outer channel and (ii) Inner channel

Entrance channel:-

  • The portion entrance to a harbor is called as entrance channel & entrance to a harbor is generally more exposed to sea waves, hence depth & width of entrance channel are more.
  • The entrance channel should be sufficiently wide for navigational purposes & to prevent dangerous tidal currents.

Berthing basin:-

  • A basin in which the vessels or ships rests or parks is called as berthing basin. Area of berthing basin is protected by shore & breakwaters.
  • In such basin, other elements of harbor including area for anchorage of vessels

Turning basin:-

  • The area required for manoeuvring the ship while going or leaving the berth so that a ship can leave head on is called as turning basin
  • The size & area of turning basin should be preferably designed large enough so as to allow a free turning

Quays and wharves:-

  • Quays & wharves are the structures generally constructed parallel to shore or breakwater within harbor itself so as to permit berthing of vessel alongside for cargo working. It has wide platform at top.


  • Breakwater is a structure constructed so as to protect the enclosed area of water from strong storm waves of sea. Breakwater helps to keep the water steady or calm in the harbor and provide safety to the vessel and easy working
  • The monolithic structure generally built at the tip of the breakwater which is termed as pier head.

Dry docks slipways:-

  • Dry docks and slipways are used for repairs, maintenance and construction of ships. Building dock is essentially provided for construction of ship.
  • These are kept dry for easy working.

Jetties and piers:-

  • Jetties and piers are open or solid tape of structure having a wide platform on the top so as to permit cargo working of vessels or ships berthed alongside.

Lock and locked basin:-

  • Locked basin is an enclosed basin in which a number of ships or vessels are berthed. Locked basin has an entrance gate which is controlled by lock gates.

Other components:-

  • Components like moorings, sheds, buoys, godowns, fire protection towers, anchors, warehouses, lights and other essential service unit are essential at different location in the harbor.
written 2.1 years ago by gravatar for Juilee Juilee2.1k
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