Classify Hydroelectric power plant. Explain pumped storage power plant with neat sketch.
1 Answer

Classification of Hydroelectric power plant

a. According to type of head.

  1. Low head power plant : Head 0-20 m of range

  2. Medium head power plant : Head 20-100 m of range

  3. High head power plant : Head 100 m above

b. According to type of storage

  1. Run-off river power plant with storage

  2. Run-off river power plant without storage

c. According to capacity

  1. Pumped storage power plant

  2. Mini & Micro – Hydel power plant

  3. Base load power plant

  4. Peak load power plant


These plants supply the peak load for the base load power plants and pump all or a portion of their own water supply. The usual construction would be a tail water pond and a head water pond connected through a penstock. The generating pumping plant is at the lower end. During off peak hours, some of the surplus electric energy being generated by the base load plant is utilized to pump the water from tail water pond into the head water pond and this energy will be stored there. During times of peak load, this energy will be released by allowing the water to flow from the head water pond through the water turbine of the pumped storage plant.

enter image description here

Pumped storage power plant

These plants can be used with hydro, steam and i.e. engine plants. This plant is nothing but a hydraulic accumulator system and is shown in Fig. 11.9. These plants can have either vertical shaft arrangement or horizontal shaft arrangement. In the older plants, there were separate motor driven pumps and turbine driven generators. The improvement was the pump and turbine on the same shaft with the electrical element acting as either generator or motor. The latest design is to use a Francis turbine which is just the reverse of centrifugal pump. When the water flows through it from the head water pond it will act as a turbine and rotate the generator. When rotated in the reverse direction by means of an electric motor, it will act as a pump to shunt the water from the tail water pond to the head water pond. The efficiency of such a plant is never 100 per cent. Some water may evaporate from the head water pond resulting in the reduction in the stored energy or there might be run off through the soil.

Please log in to add an answer.