Ergonomics is the study of human abilities and characteristics, which affect the design of equipment, systems, and jobs.
The aim of ergonomics is to develop a comfortable, safe and thus a productive work system, by incorporating human factors thinking and data into the plan.
This means designing the product or process to use the capabilities of the person,but at the same time to respect their limitations.
Ergonomic Design Consideration In Relation To Work
To get successful and optimum from operator-machine system it is required to concentrate on three important aspects of a tool/workstation/system design they are described as follows:
- Display is a device that provides information about a situation which has already or is just occurring.
- Display provides both prime and secondary information needed by operator in carrying out required action.
- Design gives either static or dynamics information,in which dynamic information changes over the time.E.g.Traffic signal.
Design of controls
- Controlling devices perform the action initiated and formulated by an operator.different types of controls devices are used,which are as follows:
- Hand Lever:it provides quick control for large force and with this fine adjustment is difficult to achieve. These are only suitable for on-off or strp-up,step-down type of operation.
- Hand Wheel :it provides controlling torque by using any or both hands in case of heavy loads with good accuracy of adjustments.
- Knobs:These are used for light load applications with fingers or hands and are generally used in instrument control panels.
- Push Buttons and Switches:These are used for light loads and are usually operated by one finger.
- Foot Pedals:These are used for repetitive actions where cycle time is very short and are employed in sitting position of the operator.
Design Of Working Conditions
- Working conditions in the factory has very close relationship with productivity of employees.
- Fatigue due to long working hours and poor working conditions are detrimental to productivity.
Working Conditions Includes
- Working Premises:Working premises should preferably above the ground level and should be equipped with sufficient number of windows.windows should not have surface area less than 17% of floor area.each worker should have at least 10 cubic meter of air and to prevents accidents every worker should have at least floor space area of 2 sq feet.walls and ceilings should have good surface finish and floors should be non-slippery.
- Good House Keeping:To follow good housekeeping,5s-principles are followed.
- Lighting:To accelerate the production,reduce number of defectived, reduces wastage,preventing visual fatigue and headache to workers,good visibility of equipment,the product and data involved in work place is essential.the use of natural light is always encouraged.the use of colorful interior color scheme contributes to good lighting and psychological effect to operator(s).
- Anthropometry:is the branch of ergonomics that deals with body shape and size.people come in all shape and sizes so you need to take these physical characteristics into account whenever you design anything that someone will use,from something as simple as a pencil to samething as complex as a car.