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What are the differernt types of plant layout? What are their advantages and disadvantages?
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There are four types of layout

PROCESS LAYOUT

It is also known as ‘functional layout’. The main feature of this type of layout is that, similar machines or similar kind of processes are kept in a group in a deparatment . The specliazed deparatment works for all type of production.

This type of layout is generally employed for industries engaged in job order production and non repetitive kinds of maintenance or manufacturing.All the machines have to be arranged according to their functions.

Figure shows process layout

  1. Store room
  2. Inspection department
  3. Broaching section
  4. Milling section
  5. Lathe section
  6. Shaper section
  7. Painting section
  8. Packing section

Advantages:

  • Better utilization of available equipment
  • Less number of machines is required.
  • Less capital investment
  • Better product quality

Disadvantages

  • Production is not continuous
  • Cost of transportationbetween process department is high and wide variation in cycle time of operation of products.

Product layout

It is also called as line layout.The main feature of this layout type is that, various operations on raw material are performed in a sequence and machines are placed along the product flow line i.e machines are arrange in a sequence in which they would be used ina process of manufacture of the products or group of related products.

This type of latout materials are work out into finished stock through series of integrated operation that is arranged in the line. This layout is preferred for continuous production and for steady demand of product with limited product variation.

Advantages:

  • Less space is required for the same volume of production.
  • Automation in material handling is possible
  • In process inventory is less.

Disadvantages:

  • Lack of flexibility
  • Difficult in supervision and further expansion and large capital investment.

Combination layout

  • This type of a layout is a combination of process and product layout and hence combination advantages of both types of layouts.
  • A combination is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes in such case machinery is arranged in a process layout but the process grouping is arranged in a sequenced to manufacture various type and size of products.Combination layout is also useful when a number of item are produced in a same sequence but none of the items are produced in bulk and thus , no item justifies for an individual and independent product line line.

Fixed posion layout

  • In this layout men, machines, equipments, material moved up and posion of the product remains same. This type of layout is useful in ship building, air craft manufacturing, and big units of fabrication like huge process equipment.

Advantages:

  • Less material movement
  • Low labour cost
  • Less floor space is required
  • Great flexibility of change in product or process.

Disadvantages:

  • Cost of moving material os high
  • Utilization of equipment is low and high grade of skill is required.
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