What are the different methods of synthesis of nano materials? Explain one of them in detail.
2 Answers

To produce nanoparticles of small identical size various methods are used: - 1. Sol gel method

  1. Inert gas condensation

  2. Chemical vapor decomposition

  3. Electrodeposition

  4. Plasma arching

  5. Mechanical alloying

solgel Method::Solgel is most commonly used. A sol means dispersion of the solid particles in a liquid. A gel refers to a state where both liquid and solid network containing liquid components. This method synthesizes almost any material. It produces extremely homogeneous alloy and composite. It precisely controls the microstructure of the final products and control the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the final product. The sol gel solution is taken into a drying chamber and thoroughly mixed by applying pressure and temperature. This creates hydrodynamics bubbles in solgel which undergoes nucleation, growth and the quenches to form nanoparticles.enter image description here


Different techniques of Synthesis Nanomaterial Various techniques are adopted for the synthesis of nano materials that too in various forms like nano particles, nano powder, nano crystals, nano films, nano wires, nano tubes, nano dots. These methods includes:

  1. Ball Milling
  2. Sputtering
  3. Vapor deposition
  4. Sol gel technique.
  5. Electro deposition.
  6. Mechanical crushing or Ball milling
  7. LASER synthesis
  8. Inert gas condensation

Ball Milling

It is a process where a powder mixture placed in the ball mill is subjected to high energy collision from the balls. Planetary ball mill is most frequently used system for mechanical alloying since only a very small amount of powder is required. In simple language, a ball mill consists of a hollow cylindrical shell rotating about its axis. The axis of the shell may be either horizontally or at a small angle to the horizontal. It is partially filled with balls which makes grinding media and made up of steel, stainless steel or ceramic. The inner surface of the shell is made up of an abrasion resistant material. When continuously operated, the shell rotates and lifts the balls up and drops them from near the top of the shell which causes the grinding of the particles inside.

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