Various elements in CNC machines :-
Numerical control is described as a technique to control various functions of a machine tool with an input. CNC is a microprocessor-based system, the heart and brain of a CNC machine. Following are some of the components of a CNC system:
- Central processing unit (CPU)
- Input devices
- Machine control panel
- Programmable logic controller (PLC)
- Servo-control unit
- Display unit
A serial communication port is often utilized to transfer data from a computer to a CNC machine. There are international standards established for serial communications.
The CPU is where a CNC system is controlled. It receives the data stored in the memory as part program. The data is then decoded and modified into position control and velocity control signals. It oversees the movement of the spindle or control axis. An action is rectified if it does not match with the programmed data. Speed control unit works in a harmonious way with the CPU for the movement of the machine axes.