- Fracture is certain discontinuity developed in a solid due to external impact loading.
- If the fracture is perpendicular to surface then it is tensile failure, if the fracture is parallel to the surface then it is shear failure.
- When load excides the fracture value or ultimate value, the object breaks
- Fracture acts differently in both ductile and brittle materials.
- For brittle materials as the ultimate tensile stress is exceeded the fracture occurs.
- Their forms a cleavage and the crack propagates along the cleavage and fractures finally.
Formula for it is given by
For ductile materials, as the stress value exceeds the ultimate value, it starts formation of neck at critical point.
- As the force gets exceeded by ultimate value, the neck starts forming at critical region, due to that voids starts forming at neck.
As the force exceeds more the voids starts coalescing and form a big void, after increase in load cracks starts propagations and finally leads to fracture.