Write short note on Airport marking and lighting.
1 Answer


1) Apron and hangar lighting

2) Approach lighting

3) Runway lighting

4) Taxiway lighting


  • These are areas flood lit for convenience in servicing and loading
  • Constitutes a projector designed to illuminate a surface mounted in such a way that they do not cause glare in the eyes of pilots, passengers and service persons
  • flood lights should be placed ata height not less than 12m above the pavement


  • A sequence of high intensity of lighting arrangement, before runway begins
  • Helps the pilot to check if the aircraft is centered correctly or not
    • Systems for providing these are
      • Culvert system
      • ICAO system


  • Lights are provided before the starting of runway
  • High frequency lighting arrangement foralength of 900m
  • Lights are mounted on pedestals of varying height
  • Provided at 30m interval
  • There are 6 transverse rows of light of variable length being placed atacentre to centre distance of 150m


  • Also called as the centre line configuration system
  • One cross bar is provided at 300m from threshold
  • Roll guidance is provided by bars of 4.2m in length and are placed at 30m centre to centre on the extended centreline
  • These bars consist of5closely spaced lights to give the effect of continuous bar of light

3) RUNWAY LIGHTING Runway centerline lighting

  • Semiflush type and are spaced at 15m interval and are 60cm from the runway centerline
  • This will avoid nose gear of aircraft from riding over
  • White in color except for the last 900m
  • Red for final 300m
  • For remaining 600m lights are alternatively red and white

Touchdown zone lighting - There is a black hole effect after passing the high intensity approach and threshold lights

  • To eliminate this black hole effect flush mounted transverse pavement bars are provided
  • Provided for the first 900m and are placed symmetrically to the centerline of runway

Runway edge lighting

  • Provides the locational information during landing and take off and landing
  • White in color except for the last 600m of an instrument runway
  • The bidirectional yellow or white lights are provided with yellow light facing the departing pilot
  • Located atadistance not more than 3m from the edge
  • Maximum spacing of 60m

Runway threshold lighting

  • consist of a line of green lights
  • Extends across the width of runway in the direction of landing
  • They are red in opposite direction to indicate the end of

4)TAXIWAY LIGHTING Taxiway centerline lighting

  • Located on the taxiway centerline marking
  • If not possible to locate them on centreline, they are offset by not more than 30cm
  • Spaced atalongitudinal interval of not more than 30m

Taxiway edge tighting

  • Provided on the holding bay, apron and on the taxiway
  • Placed atalongitudinal interval of not more than 60m on the straight section of taxiway and on the runway forming part
  • Blue in color


Airport markings are divided into following6groups:

  1. Apron marking

  2. Landing direction indicator

  3. Runway marking

  4. Shoulder marking

  5. Taxiway marking

  6. Wind direction Indicator


  • Apron is provided with certain guide line which help the pilot in manoeuvring the aircraft on apron.
  • Smaller aircrafts can also use the same path.
  • The guide line indicate the path of nose gear of aircraft.
  • There are chances of fuel spillage, hence the yellow paint is to be of special fuel resistant variety.


  • It indicate to the pilot the active runway of airport.
  • To indicate the landing direction, an arrow orTis placed.
  • It is painted with orange or white colour for being spotted during day time and lighted during night time.
  • It is fixed atadistant place.


  • Centre line marking-90cm width
  • Runway edge marking -90cm

    • runway pvmt width>45m
  • Runway Numbering

  • Touchdown or Landing zone

  • Threshold marking-3.6 m wide

4.Taxiway marking

  • centre line 15 cm wide yellow color continuous line
  • Holding line- at all the intersections of the paved taxiways with the runways

5.Wind direction indicator

  • The direction from which the wind blows is indicated at the airport byawind cone.

  • It is placed withinasegmented circle together with the landing direction indicator.

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