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Explain with neat sketch method of manufacturing of sugar
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  1. The sugarcane is normally harvested manually in India, which eliminates the carriage of soil and trashes to the factory along with the sugar canes.
    1. The sugarcane are cut into pieces and crushed in a series of rollers to extract the juice, in the mill house.
    2. The milk of lime is then added to the juice and heated, when all the colloidal and suspended impurities are coagulated: much of the colour is also removed during this lime treatment.
    3. The coagulated juice is then clarified to remove the sludge.
    4. The clarifier sludge is further filtered through filter presses and then disposed off as solid waste.
    5. The filterate is recycled to the process and the entire quantity of clarified juice is treated by passing sulphur dioxide gas through it.
    6. The process is known as sulphitation process, colour of juice is completely bleached out due to this process.
    7. The clarified juice is then preheated and concentrated in evaporators and vacuum pans.
    8. The partially crystalized syrup from the vacuum pan, known as massecuite is then transferred to the crystallizers where complete crystallisation of sugar occurs.
    9. The massecuite is then centrifuged, to seperate the sugar crystals from the mother liquor.
    10. The spent liquor is discarded as black strap mollases. The sugar is then dried and bagged for transport.

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