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Short note on Resource Allocation graph

Subject: Operating System

Topic : Process Concurrency

Difficulty: Hard

1 Answer
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The resource allocation graph is the pictorial representation of the state of a system. As its name suggests, the resource allocation graph is the complete information about all the processes which are holding some resources or waiting for some resources.

It also contains the information about all the instances of all the resources whether they are available or being used by the processes.

In Resource allocation graph, the process is represented by a Circle while the Resource is represented by a rectangle. Let's see the types of vertices and edges in detail. enter image description here

Vertices are mainly of two types, Resource and process. Each of them will be represented by a different shape. Circle represents process while rectangle represents resource.

A resource can have more than one instance. Each instance will be represented by a dot inside the rectangle.

enter image description here

Edges in RAG are also of two types, one represents assignment and other represents the wait of a process for a resource. The above image shows each of them.

A resource is shown as assigned to a process if the tail of the arrow is attached to an instance to the resource and the head is attached to a process.

A process is shown as waiting for a resource if the tail of an arrow is attached to the process while the head is pointing towards the resource. enter image description here

Example

Let'sconsider 3 processes P1, P2 and P3, and two types of resources R1 and R2. The resources are having 1 instance each.

According to the graph, R1 is being used by P1, P2 is holding R2 and waiting for R1, P3 is waiting for R1 as well as R2.

The graph is deadlock free since no cycle is being formed in the graph. enter image description here

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