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SONET - Frames
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Each synchronous transfer signal STS-n is composed of 8000 frames. Each frame is a two-dimensional matrix of bytes with 9 rows by 90 × n columns.

For example, an STS-1 frame is 9 rows by 90 columns (810 bytes), and an STS-3 is 9 rows by 270 columns (2430 bytes). Figure 1 shows the general format of an STS-1 and an STS-n.

One of the interesting points about SONET is that each STS-n signal is transmitted at a fixed rate of 8000 frames per second. This is the rate at which voice is digitized . For each frame the bytes are transmitted from the left to the right, top to the bottom. For each byte, the bits are transmitted from the most significant to the least significant (left to right). Figure 2 shows the order of frame and byte transmission.

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If we sample a voice signal and use 8 bits (1 byte) for each sample, we can say that each byte in a SONET frame can carry information from a digitized voice channel. In other words, an STS-1 signal can carry 774 voice channels simultaneously (810 minus required bytes for overhead).

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