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SQL - Injection
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Structured Query Language (SQL) is a database computer language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). SQL injection is a code injection technique that exploits a security vulnerability occurring in the database layer of an application. The vulnerability is present when user input is either filtered incorrectly for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and thereby unexpectedly executed. It is an instance of a more general class of vulnerabilities that can occur whenever one programming or scripting language is embedded inside another. SQL injection attacks are also known as SQL insertion attacks.

Attackers target the SQL servers - common database servers used by many organizations to store confidential data. The prime objective behind SQL injection attack is to obtain the information while accessing a database table that may contain personal information such as credit card numbers, social security numbers or passwords. During an SQL injection attack, Malicious Code is inserted into a web form field or the website's code to make a system execute a command shell or other arbitrary commands. Just as a legitimate user enters queries and additions to the SQL database via a web form, the attacker can insert commands to the SQL server through the same web form field. For example, an arbitrary command from an attacker might open a command prompt or display a table from the database. This makes an SQL server a high-value target and therefore a system seems to be very attractive to attackers.

The attacker determines whether a database and the tables residing into it are vulnerable, before launching an attack. Many webpages take parameters from web user and make SQL query to the database. For example, when a user logs in with username and password, an SQL query is sent to the database to check if a user has valid name and password. With SQL injection, it is possible for an attacker to send crafted username and/or password field that will change the SQL query.

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