Draw a neat diagram and explain working of photovoltaic cell.
2 Answers

Solar Energy:

  • Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun. Solar energy is an inexhaustible source of energy and the best replacement to other non-renewable energies.
  • It is environment friendly, it does not release CO2 and other gases which pollute the air while used.
  • Solar cells use photovoltaics to convert sunlight directly into electricity by converting photons (light particles) into electrons (negatively charged particles).
  • Solar cells are made of semiconductors and silicon, mixed with other material.


  • It is based on principle of solid-state physics of semiconductors.
  • It is a device made of semiconductor materials that produce electric energy under light (photon) energy. This conversion does not involve any chemical reactions.
  • Silicon is a popular material for solar PV cells because it is a semiconductor material, technology is well developed to make silicon for an elctric cell or battery.
  • Silicon is abundant in supply and relatively inexpensive in production.


Conversion of solar energy directly on to electrical energy in a solar cell:


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Solar power plant consists of following components:

  1. Photovoltaic cell panel: Its function is to convert sunrays directly into DC electricity.

2.Battery charge Controller: It protects battery from over charging and it prevents battery from over discharging. In this way it increases life of storage battery. (OR a charge controller is needed to ensure the battery is neither over nor under-charged)

3.Storage Battery: Its function is store DC electrical energy generated by P.V. cell which can be used whenever required. Generally battery having long life are used .There are two types of battery: 1. Lead acidic battery 2. Nickel cadmium battery

4.Inverter: It converts DC supply into AC supply.

  1. Step-up transformer: It step-up input voltage to utilization voltage e.g. 230V
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