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Comparison between Air standard cycles and actual cycles.
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Air Standard Cycle Actual Cycle
Pure air is used. Working fluid is a combination of air fuel
and residual gas in the cylinder.
Composition of working fluid remains
constant.
Composition of working fluid changes
at every instant of time.
Specific heat of working fluid is
considered as constant.
Specific heat of working fluid changes
at every instant during combustion
Constant $C_p$ and $C_v$. $C_p$ and $C_v $ changes.
It consists of reversible processes. It consists of irreversible processes.
Ideal gas equation ie, PV=mRT is valid 
in each point.
Not valid in actual cycles.
No loss of work. Loss of work due to friction and leakage.
Losses are not considered. Time loss factor,heat loss factor,exhaust 
blow down,piping loss all are considered.
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