state design challenges in MANET
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Infrastructure Networks

  • Devices on the network all communicate through a single access point: a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi

  • Problem: the large overhead of maintaining the routing tables

  • Ad-hoc means for this purpose'

Ad-Hoc Network

  • Decentralized type of wireless network
  • It is ad-hoc because it does not rely on preexisting infrastructure such as routers in wired networks ,access points in wireless networks

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET)

  • It is a continuously self-configuring, infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected without wires
  • Each device is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently


  • Mobility of nodes
  • Error prone channel state
  • Resource constraints
  • Bandwidth constraints
  • Hidden and Exposed station problem

MANET Design Issues

  • Network size and node density.
    • Network size = coverage area of the network.
    • Network density= no of nodes presents in that geographical area.
    • Clustering requires to keep low on overheads in communications in a larger networks.
    • Clustering size depends on the density of the network.
  • Connectivity

    • Connectivity refers number of neighbour nodes.
    • Link capacity is based on connectivity.
    • It keeps on changing.
  • Network Topology

    • Connectivity among the nodes is also known as topology.
    • Mobility make topology more dynamic.
    • Node's can become inoperative due to discharge of batteries or hardware failures.
  • User Traffic
  • MANET Designing is carried based on,
    • Node density.
    • Average rate of node movements.
    • Expected Traffic.
  • Types of Traffic

    • Bursty Traffic.
    • Large packets sent periodically.
    • Combination of Both.
  • Operational Environment

    • Environment may differ,
      • Urban
      • Rural
      • Maritime.
    • Most of these requires the line of sight (LoS) communication system.
    • Node density differs all the time MANET may suit for this.
  • Energy Constraints
    • No infrastructure so no reliable power source.
    • Extra roles like routers.
    • Routing workload drains the batteries quickly.
  • Node must be kept in sleeping mode when the overhead occurs to save the batteries.
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