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Write a note on 10 heuristics by Nielsen.
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  • Visibility of the system status The deign must keep the user informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within a reasonable amount of time. When user know the current system status, they learn the outcome of their prior interactions and determine next steps.
    For eg:- "You are here" indicators on a mall maps have to show people where they currently are, to help the, understand where to go next.

  • Match between system and the real world The design must speak user language. Use words, phrases, and concepts familiar to the user, rather than internal jargon. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural logical order. The design depends very much on your specific users. When a design's controls follow real-world conventions and corresponds to desired outcomes, it's easier for users to learn and remember how the interface works.
    For eg:- When stovetop controls match the layout of heating elements, users can quickly understand which control maps to which heating element.

  • User control and freedom User often perform actions by mistake. They need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted action without having to go through an extended process. When it's easy for people to back out of a process or undo an action, it fosters a sense of freedom and confidence. Exits allow users to remain in control of the system and avoid getting stuck and feeling frustrated.
    For eg:- Restore button for deleted items.

  • Consistency and standards User should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform and industry conventions. Jackob's Law states that people spend most of their time using digital products other than yours. User's experience with those other products set their expectations. Failing to maintain consistency may increase the user load by forcing them to learn something new.
    For eg:- Check in customers are usually located at the front of hotels. This consistency meets customer's expectations.

  • Error prevention Good error messages are important, but the best designs carefully prevent problems from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions, or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.
    For eg:- Guard rails on curvey mountain roads prevent drivers from falling off cliffs.

  • Recognition rather than recall Minimize the user's memory load by making elements, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part to the interface to another. Information required to use the design should be visible or easily retrievable when needed. Humans have limited short-term memories. Interfaces that promote recognition reduce amount of cognitive effort required from users.
    For eg:- Suggestions while trying in google search.

  • Flexibility and efficiency of use. Shortcuts hidden from novice users may speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the design can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions. Flexible processes can be carried out in different ways, so that people can pick whichever method works for them.
    For eg:- Regular routes are listed on maps, but locals with more knowledge of the area can take shortcuts.

  • Aesthetic and minimalist design Interfaces should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in and interface competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility. This heuristic doesn't mean you have to use a flat design it's about making sure you're keeping the content and visual design focused on the essentials. Ensure that the visual elements of the interface support the user's primary goals.
    Fore eg:- Materialistic design of all google apps.

  • Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from error Error messages should be expressed in a plain language, precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution. These error message should also be presented with visual treatments that will help users notice and recognize them. A check need to be made if those errors are being explained to the users in understandable language.
    For eg:- The error message or dialog that appears when a particular username is already used.

  • Help and documentation It's best if the system doesn't need any additional explanation. However, it may be necessary to provide documentation to help users understand how to complete their tasks. Help and documentation content should be easy to search and focused on the user's task. Keep it concise, and list concrete steps that need to be carried out.<bt> Foe eg:- The Help and FAQ section in any app or website or user manual.

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