Cyberspace is defined by US DoD as the global domain that consists of the interdependent networks of information technology infrastructures and resident data.
This includes the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, in addition to embedded processors and controllers (CRS 2015).
With electromagnetic signals from the different applications in the spectrum sending and receiving those invisible data elements around us, everything around us is part of this cyberspace.
The Internet, or the web, online social networks (OSNs), smart phones, cloud computing, and Internet of things (IoT) are some other main milestones or contributes to the continuous growth of the cyberspace.
All elements in those technologies are contributing nodes to this invisible, large, and complex virtual cyberspace around us.
Full Spectrum Cyber
We described in earlier sections the different implications for full spectrum cyber operations, analysis, etc.
This is one of the “buzz” words in cyber operations and intelligence largely used by companies for marketing purposes.
Originally, the term spectrum is related to the EW frequency spectrum from telecommunication products, applications, bands, etc.
This also integrated IT, software, hardware, and network environments and does not focus cyber applications on the software side only.
Cyber Ranges and Information Technology Ranges
Cyber ranges are large virtual labs that exist to provide and support safe and legal training on cyber security, intelligence, and operations.
One of the main drivers for such labs is the need to equip cyber personnel with skills and hands on trainings in addition to the theoretical learning or knowledge.
Typically, those are emulation rather than simulation. It means that many of those labs represent actual physical networks and labs, but users can access them virtually from anywhere in the world, once they are given the right credentials.
Virtualization is also common in those labs where users can use images with virtual operating systems. This can typically facilitate minimizing the effort for users to mimic the actual lab or exercise environment.
It can also help users perform their training on virtual operating systems isolated from their host operating systems.
For cyber security experiments, this can shield host operating systems from risks related to conducting experiments that can harm those operating systems.
In classical espionage, a company may hire an undercover employee to work with another company and spy on some products, technologies, etc.
This may be similar in cyber espionage or may be completely virtual where individuals performing the espionage may not be physically in contact with target states, companies, or systems.
Espionage can be for spying on government or military personnel, systems, or assets. It can also be to transfer new technologies, inventions, copyrighted products, etc.
In one recent cyber espionage case, the USA charged five Chinese hackers for cyber espionage against U.S. Corporations for commercial advantages.