Define the terms. (1) Cyber Deception, (2) Cyber Hacktivists, (3) Cyber Operations Limitations.


Cyber Deception

  • Cyber deception enables a proactive security approach by seeking to deceive attackers, detect them and then defeat them, allowing systems to return to normalnoperations.

Cyber Hacktivists

  • Cyber-hacktivists are individuals who perform cyberattacks for political, environ- mental, or other nonmonetary reasons.

  • One of the most popular examples of cyberhacktivists is anonymous group.

  • Anonymous is a large decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for performing various DDOS cyber-attack or web defacements against several governments.

  • In some other cases, those can be in the form of cyber-riots with large individuals against their own country protesting their own government, policies, etc.

Cyber Operations Limitations

  • One of the significant efforts that talked about limitations on cyber wars and operations is Tallinn Manual (NATO 2013, Schmitt 2013, 2017).

  • The manual represents 3 years effort to assess how current international laws react to cyber operations, warfare, etc.

  • One important limitation in cyber operations focused in the manual is related to the protection of civilians and the need to take all possible measures to protect humans from the impacts of cyber operations.

  • From practical perspective and due to the nature of the Internet and cyber world where everything is interconnected, achieving such goal in all cyber operations is almost impossible.

  • States are responsible and liable for cyber operations committed by their members or proxies (Schmitt 2013).

  • The ability to limit or trace back all types of impacts that a cyber operation caused can take effort much more the effort required to plan and deploy those cyber operations.

  • This can be seen as similar to the “collateral damage” in conventional wars (i.e., unintended damage).

  • The detection of activities by adversaries in the cyberspace is a difficult and long process (Joint Publication 3-12, 2013).

  • Further the assessment of the impact of a cyber operation is also tedious and time-consuming.

  • It is possible that friendly cyber operation may cause direct or indirect impacts on friendly assets that were unaccounted for as planning for the impact of a cyber operation is tedious and may not be always accurate.

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