Explain the information needs in cyber policy and strategy management.
1 Answer


  • Information is needed to make decisions. The higher the quality of the collected information and the more comprehensive the information, the more sound the decision.

  • Information needs refer to any general or specific subject for which a state or local agency has a continuing need for intelligence (GAO 2010).

  • They are also defined as: insights needed to manage objectives, goals, risks, and problems [ISO/IEC 2007].

  • It is important to make sure that information needs are articulated, clarified, assigned, and fulfilled, using intelligence processes in a timely manner.

  • In cyber security, information needs are primarily focused on threat, vulnerability, consequences, warning, and countermeasures.

  • To adequately assess cyber threats, information is needed for a comprehensive analysis.

  • In some cases, during the course of the analytic process, critical information may be missing that prevents a complete and accurate assessment of the issue.

  • Such gap or unanswered question related to the threat triggers an intelligence requirement process/information need.

  • In order to ensure the efficiency of the intelligence collection process, the information collection process needs to be focused so that specific information needs are fulfilled.

  • Some procedures that can enhance the process of information needs collection and processing (FBI 2003):

    • Identify, prioritize, and address state and local information needs.

    • Share intelligence, analytical techniques, and tools.

    • Timely distribution of appropriate intelligence.

    • Seek feedback concerning the effectiveness of the support.

  • Typically, based on time information needs can be divided into three categories (ISAO 2016):

    • Immediate-Information needs that concern actions to defend against or respond to new threats, vulnerabilities, or incidents as soon as possible.

    • Tactical-Information needs that concern decisions on how to best deploy an organization’s existing resources against the change in situational awareness.

    • Strategic-Information needs that concern making plans and decisions on the efforts and resources needed to address emerging or future threat environments.

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