The main objective of robotic applications is to determine the position and orientation of each part relative to the base frame of the robot.
Once this information is known, the proper tool configuration can be selected, and then the joint-space trajectory can be computed, and manipulated the part.
With the aid of robot vision, we can determine the position and orientation of a part relative to the camera.
Camera calibration or camera resectioning estimates the parameters of a pinhole camera model given a photograph.
Usually, the pinhole camera parameters are represented in a 3 × 4 matrix called the camera matrix. We use these parameters to estimate the actual size of an object or determine the location of the camera in the world.
To compute this, the accurate transformation from the camera to base coordinates is required.
Determining this information is called camera calibration. Camera calibration requires determining the position as well as the orientation of the camera.