Robot programming is done at a level that requires detail knowledge of the robot characteristics, the manipulation task, and the environment in which the task is to be performed.
There are three general approaches to robot programming:
(1). Teach-pendant method
(2). Lead-through method
(3). On-line and off-line programming
The robot is guided through the desired motions manually. The robot controller records the motions, which are play backed and edited as needed until the desired motion is obtained.
(1). It requires a human operator to program the robot.
(2). It takes the robot out of useful service
(3). The parts or objects being manipulated are to be presented to the robot at the same positions and orientation each time.
(4). The teaching method is an open-loop type of approach which does not incorporate uncertainties in the environment.
(5). Off-line programming requires detailed specification of the manipulation task and the the layout of the parts in the workspace.
To overcome the drawbacks of all three approaches, task-level programming was introduced. It is a higher-level programming technique.
In this approach, a series of goals specifying the desired positions and orientations of the objects being manipulated are supplied by the programmer.
The task specification is robot independent. The task planner, however, requires a detailed model, knowledge base, robot characteristics, its environment, and the manipulation task.