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Explain TMS320 ${ }^{\mathrm{TM}}$ C5416 DSP Processor Architecture with diagram.
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Solution:

The TMS320TMC5416 processor is a fixed-point digital signal processor that uses an advanced modified Harvard architecture.

Data and programs are stored in separate memory spaces but by changing the OVLY status certain memory spaces can be set for both program instructions and data.

In order to maximize processing power there is one program memory bus against three data memory buses.

This makes it possible to have several accesses to memory space in the same cycle.

The processor is able to achieve a high degree of processing efficiency because of the following features.

(i) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):

ALU has a high degree of parallelism. It has a 40-Bit ALU including a 40-bit barrel shifter and two independent 40-bit accumulators (ALU is not shown in the diagram).

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(ii) MAC operation:

It has a 17 by 17-Bit (16-bit signed) parallel multiplier coupled to a 40-bit dedicated adder for nonpipelined single-cycle MAC operation.

(iii) Application-specific hardware logic:

There are several application-specific hardware logic such as GSM codec, ยต-law compression, a-law compression, and Viterbi accelerator.

(iv) On-chip memory:

SARAM, DARAM, ROM. The on-chip memory increases performance because it removes the need for wait states and flow within the Central Arithmetic Logic Unit and also this is a lower cost option compared to the use of external memory.

(v) On-chip peripherals:

Examples of these include software programmable wait state generator, a programmable bank switch, a host-port interface (HP18/16), three multichannel buffered serial ports (McBSP), a hardware timer, a clock generator with multiple PLLs, Enhanced extended parallel interface(XIO2), and a DMA controller.

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