Write a short note on Client- external communication layer.
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Client- external communication layer:

The reference architecture needs to provide a way for these devices to communicate outside of the device-oriented system.

This includes three main approaches. Firstly, we need the ability to create web-based frontends and portals that interact with devices and with the event-processing layer. Secondly, we need the ability to create dashboards that offer views into analytics and event processing.

Finally, we need to be able to interact with systems outside this network using machine-to-machine communications (APIs). These APIs need to be managed and controlled and this happens in an API management system.

The recommended approach to building the web front end is to utilize a modular front-end architecture, such as a portal, which allows simple fast composition of useful UIs. Of course, the architecture also supports existing Web server-side technology, such as Java Servlets/ JSP, PHP, Python, Ruby, etc.

Our recommended approach is based on the Java framework and the most popular Java-based web server, Apache Tomcat. The dashboard is a re-usable the system focused on creating graphs and other visualizations of data coming from the devices and the event processing layer.

The API management layer provides three main functions:

The first is that it provides a developer-focused portal (as opposed to the user-focused portal previously mentioned), where developers can find, explore, and subscribe to APIs from the system. There is also support for publishers to create, version, and manage the available and published APIs.

The second is a gateway that manages access to the APIs, performing access control checks (for external requests) as well as throttling usage based on policies. It also performs routing and load-balancing.

The final aspect is that the gateway publishes data into the analytics layer where it is stored as well as processed to provide insights into how the APIs are used.

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