Causes are as follows
1) The main cause of the ozone hole was found to be gases that contained Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Halons and Freons.
2) The presence of chlorine within CFC’s break down the ozone gases in ozone layer which increases the chances of ozone depletion. Till date, CFC’s have accounted for about 80% of ozone depletion.
3) The destruction of the ozone layer is primarily caused when the amount of gases that contain chlorine begins to increase in the environment. As these gases rise upwards, they are exposed to UV light. This then causes a chemical reaction which creates chlorine atoms. These affect the atoms of ozone and cause ozone depletion.
4) As of now, the ozone hole remains an area of interest for many. Even though the hole present above the Antarctic is beginning to show signs of a decline, there are concerns regarding the long term effects. In particular, many scientists are worried that the development of the same conditions in other parts of the world may cause large scale ozone thinning in the future, if not ozone depletion all together.
Effects are as follows-
1) It leads to skin cancer or skin irritation which can lead to death. A decrease in 1% of ozone layer can cause 5% increase in cases of skin cancer.
2) Exposure to UV rays has also increased the cases of cataracts which in turn affects people’s vision and could also cause an increase in people becoming blind.
3) Depletion of ozone layer and increase in UV rays can also cause DNA damage which can also be catastrophic.
4) Aquatic plants and animals are not even safe.
5) In the animal kingdom, many species of animals have been found suffering from growing sunburn as a result of increased UV light. Certain crops will also be affected, since they are dependent on cyanobacteria which is quite sensitive to changing levels of the UV radiation. On the other hand, it has also been found that the increased levels allow for the production of more Vitamin D in the animal kingdom.
6) One of widespread and long lasting effects has been the public awareness towards the environmental issues facing the planet. As one of the first major man-made problems to be discussed on a public forum, it set the ground for public opinion and action on issues such as pollution, greenhouse gases, global warming and the climate crisis.