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Second law of thermodynamics.
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  • The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy. There are two statements of the second law of thermodynamics viz.

    • Kelvin–Planck Statement: It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat from a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work.

    • Clausius Statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a lower-temperature body to a higher-temperature body.

  • The Kelvin–Planck and the Clausius statements are equivalent in their consequences, and either statement can be used as the expression of the second law of thermodynamics. Any device that violates the Kelvin–Planck statement also violates the Clausius statement, and vice versa.

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